Stuart W. Cramer
Stuart W. Cramer 1868-1940
A mill engineer without equal in the late 19th and early 20th century, Stuart W. Cramer was responsible for the
design of 150 mills -nearly one-third of the textile mills built in the South during that period.  A native of
Thomasville, NC, a town tucked away in the Piedmont far from the ocean, the family with little financial
resources to send a son to college, arranged for an appointment to Annapolis. Cramer graduated as a naval
engineer from the US Naval Academy at Annapolis.   At age 20 in 1888, fresh from that program, he elected to
study mining engineering at Columbia in New York City.  He was appointed chief assayer at the United States
Mint in Charlotte, where he worked for four years analyzing gold and silver ores.  What an unusual preparation
for a textile mill engineer!

During this time in Charlotte, you might say he was discovered by
D.A. Tompkins, the leading textile mill
engineer of the 1890s.  Tompkins’ firm in Charlotte represented the Westinghouse electric motor and several
textile mill supply companies.  He provided engineering services and designed mills.  He was an enthusiastic
campaigner for higher textile education and was instrumental in helping form the programs at Clemson, North
Carolina State, Mississippi State and in Texas.  After serving a two-year apprenticeship with Tompkins, Cramer
formed his own company in the mid-1890s and began designing and building cotton textile mills.  Fortunately,
he was a dedicated observer and writer.  His early work on the Highland Park Mill #3 in Charlotte was the basis
for his four-volume “Useful Information for Cotton Manufacturers.”  The second 1909 edition of these detailed
and extensive volumes is available in e-book format thanks to the digitizing services of the 21st century.  He was
the designer and supplier for the
Tucapau Mill, Spartanburg County, SC and the Pelzer Manufacturing Co.,
Pelzer, SC, to name just two of the eleven cotton mills he formed. (Thank you Peter Metzke!)

He also was a talented inventor and achieved over 60 US and international patents involving various aspects of
textile manufacturing.  He is credited with the term “air-conditioning.”  Air-conditioning was widely installed in
cotton spinning plants to increase spinning efficiencies (and you thought it was for creature comfort!).  No, early
on, spinners realized that yarn could be spun with fewer breaks if the air was humid.  Hydrogen bonding gave
cotton fibers greater strength and allowed higher spinning efficiencies.

Working with D.A. Tompkins and the Westinghouse Electric Company, he joined with James B. Duke of the
famous tobacco family to establish Duke Power Company.  He encouraged the widespread installation of
electric drive motors to replace waterpower and Corliss steam engines as the power supplies to run mills.  
Electric lighting enabled mills to work around the clock.

His crowning achievement was the affiliation with the Mayes Manufacturing Company in Gaston County along
the south fork of the Catawba River.  The Southern Railroad ran directly through the property and connected
Charlotte with Atlanta and all points in between along the Piedmont.  River and railroad provide an unbeatable
situation: water for mill processes and ready shipping of raw cotton in and finished product out.  Eventually, he
bought a controlling interest and began putting his unique stamp on the mill and the mill village, which later
became known as Cramerton and
Cramerton Mills.  Cramerton was an ideal village with all the comforts known
at that time: electricity, indoor plumbing, and kerosene-heated water heaters.

Cramer was also active in organizing textile manufacturers to come together and talk about common problems.  
He organized the American Cotton Manufacturers Association and the National Council of American Cotton
Textile Manufacturers. At the May 1906 meeting of the American Cotton Manufacturers, he introduced the term
air conditioning," which he defined to include humidifying with the resulting evaporative cooling, air cleansing ,
heating, and ventilation. (Parks-Cramer 1962)

In 1918 Mr. Cramer terminated his activity in the field of air conditioning and sold his entire business to the G. M.
Parks Company of Fitchburg, MA.  A new company,
Parks-Cramer, was formed with offices in Fitchburg, Boston
and Charlotte. The Parks-Cramer Company Complex was located on South Boulevard, in Charlotte,
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. in the Dilworth neighborhood.  (Parks-Cramer 1925) (Parks-Cramer web)

His summer home,
Maymont,  was constructed on a mountain to the south now know as Cramer Mountain.
history.aspx  The property went into foreclosure in 2012. (Gaston Gazette)

His leadership was recognized by North Carolina State College when he was awarded the honorary Doctor of
Science degree in 1929. (Hart, Thomas R. 1955)

Stuart W. Cramer died in 1940 at the age of 72 and
is buried in Charlotte.  In 1948, his family endowed The
Shuttle Inn and The Cramer Room at the newly expanded School of Textiles at North Carolina State College.  
The Cramer Room provided a place for faculty and staff to gather and share experiences over a cup of coffee
next to the famous snack bar and hot grill called the Shuttle Inn.  When a new College of Textiles building was
built on Centennial Campus in 1991, The Cramer Room and The Shuttle Inn also moved to Centennial
Campus, where faculty, staff, and students still gather over a cup of coffee. (Mock, Gary N. 2001)


1) Goebel, Ann M., Textile Titan, Our State, 77, No. 1, 2009, 34-38.

2) North Carolina Highway Marker:
Stuart W. Cramer

3) North Carolina Highway Marker:
Daniel Augustus Tompkins

4) Anon, 1962 Textile Air Conditioning, Parks - Cramer Co., Charlotte, NC.

5) Anon., 1925
Air Conditioning in Textile Mills, 2nd edition, Parks-Cramer Co., Fitchburg, Boston, Charlotte.

6) Hart, Thomas R. 1955.
The School of Textiles, N.C. State College - its Past and Present, 2nd edition, Raleigh:
North Carolina State College Print Shop.

7) Mock, Gary N. 2001.
A Century of Progress: The Textile Program, North Carolina State University, 1899-1999,
Raleigh: North Carolina Textile Foundation, Inc.


Page Copyright Gary N. Mock 2009-2012
Textile Titans
Mill Engineers
Stuart W. Cramer
Our State, June 2009
Ad for Cramer System of Air
Conditioning 1913 Click to enlarge
Courtesy of Peter Metzke
Ad for Whitin Machine
Works 1907
Courtesy of Peter Metzke
Maymont on Cramer Mountain
south of Cramerton built 1917.
Image: Chris Bell above
Bill Wornall below
Cramer Mountain 1955.  Maymont can
only be imagined as the crowning star
on the mountain behind the trees.
Image: Chris Bell
Letterhead for the Cramer
Machinery businesses 1909